Columba Livia – Rock Pigeon

Columba Livia - Rock Pigeon in the USA

The rock dove, sometimes known as the common pigeon, is a Columbidae bird (doves and pigeons). It is commonly known as the “pigeon”. The domestic pigeon is a descendant. Escaped domestic pigeons have expanded feral pigeon populations globally.

Quick Overview: Columba Livia – Rock Pigeon
Body size: Around 13-14 in (33-36 cm) and a weight of 355 g (12.52 oz)
Main colors: Gray, Yellow, Green, Red, Purple, Gray-pink, Blue
Range: Throughout the United States
Migratory Bird: Yes
Best time of the year to see in the U.S.: All Year (January – December)
Conservation Status: Least Concern

Rock Pigeon Description

In contrast to domestic and feral pigeons, wild rock doves are pale gray with two black stripes on each wing. Males and females have little differences. The species has two squabs (young) every brood. Shortly after, both parents take over. The rock dove’s plumage is iridescent yellow, green, and reddish-purple. Females have less iridescence than males. It’s dark grayish pink. Most pigeons have two black wing bands and one bluish-gray tail band. Rock doves and feral pigeons can be classified into phenotypes or groupings based on external traits. The blue-bar, blue checker, dark checker, spread, and red phenotypes are among the examples.

Columba Livia - Rock Pigeon in the USA
One legged Columba Livia – Rock Pigeon, Photo by: Hedera.Baltica


These birds have a length of 13-14 in (33-36 cm) and a weight of 355 g (12.52 oz). Their wings could range from 24-35 in (61-89 cm).


Rock doves eat on open land in the early morning and late afternoon. They devour seeds. Pigeons in a semi-rural area of Kansas eat the following: There’s also some barley and knotweed in there. Feral pigeons in towns consume cake, peanuts, bread, and currants. Female rock doves need a diet strong in protein and calcium to deposit eggs.


Wild rock doves nest in cracks near agricultural or open shrub growth. Rural pigeons reside in ancient agricultural buildings. Skyscrapers tend to replace natural cliff environments in cities.


Pigeons walk or sprint with their heads bobbing forward and backward. They fly in a straight line. Pigeons are most visible during the day, seeking shelter at night and during the heat of the day. They roost, sunbathe, and eat together, but they do not play. Invaders are aggressively pecked by both sexes in the nesting territory.

Columba Livia Scientific Classification

  • Kingdom: Animalia
  • Phylum: Chordata
  • Subphylum: Chelicerata
  • Class: Aves
  • Order: Columbiformes
  • Family: Columbidae
  • Genus: Columba
  • Species: Columba livia

Best time of the year to see

In the United States, the best time of year to see these birds is all year round, regardless of the season. This refers to any month of the year between January and December

Distribution of the Rock Pigeon in the USA

These wild Columba lives are found in Europe and Asia. Wild pigeons are found all across the world, including North America. Notably, incidence within this range is not uniform.

The Rock Pigeon can be found in the following states in the United States – Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, and Wyoming.

Columba Livia – Rock Pigeon

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